Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S

Yakrit, the organ in comparison with Liver, is a crucial organ in response to Ayurveda. The definition and phrase derivation itself explains Yakrit as Ya – that which maintains + Krit – that which does (many features) i.e. an organ which maintains and does many essential features within the physique.

Yakrit together with its associate organ Pleeha (spleen) is the abode of blood tissue (raktashaya), have embedded in them the layers and membranes which manufacture blood (raktadhara kala) and are roots of blood conveying channels (raktavaha srotas). Together with Pleeha, Yakrit can also be the seat of Ranjaka Pitta, a subtype of pitta which is accountable to remodel and colour rasa tissue passing by means of them into rakta – the blood tissue. They’re additionally the seat of Ranjaka Agni – the fiery part positioned within the Ranjaka Pitta, which is chargeable for remodeling rasa into rakta.

The pathological manifestations associated to the Yakrit might happen at a number of of the beneath talked about ranges –

1. At Embryological Degree

The liver is a matruja avayava i.e., derived from mom. Due to this fact, any defects of ovum, illness of the mom earlier than and through conception or disturbances in fetal circulation may trigger liver issues within the fetus.

Yakrit is Shonitaja Avayava – an organ shaped from blood tissue. So, it’s clearly wealthy in blood. The blood which kinds the liver and blood wealthy organs will clearly be derived and tapped from the mom’s blood reaching the fetus by means of the fetal circulation. Defects or obstruction of blood provide to the fetus from the mom may cause anatomical and physiological defects and deficits within the liver and spleen.

2. At Anatomical & Physiological Degree

Defects within the Raktadhara Kala a part of Liver

Raktadhara Kala contains the membranes, together with the cells of the liver and spleen which participate in forming, shielding and holding the blood in them. The complete haemopoietic system can be thought-about as half and parcel of this kala. When there’s defect or injury to those kalas, the blood shouldn’t be shaped correctly. This may occasionally result in many illnesses together with varied sorts of anemia. Immature blood cells may be shaped because of this pathology.

Defects within the Raktashaya a part of Liver

The liver being an organ predominantly shaped by blood, additionally controls the blood formation and circulation all through the life. Liver is a brief depot or storehouse of blood tissue till it’s distributed to all elements of the physique by means of raktavaha srotas. There may be an enriched blood circuit system contained in the liver. The portal circulation system might be thought-about as half and parcel of Raktashaya and likewise Raktavaha Srotas. The identical sorts of issues can come up as occurs in defects of Raktadhara Kala, when there’s defect or injury to those depots. There can be inside bleeding contained in the liver.

Defects within the Raktavaha Srotas a part of the Liver

रक्त वहे द्वे तयोः मूलं यकृत् प्लीहानौ रक्त वाहिन्यः च धमन्यः।
तत्र विद्धस्य श्याव अङ्गता ज्वरो दाहः पाण्डुता शोणित आगमनं रक्त नेत्रता च (सु.शा.9/12)
शोणित वहानां स्रोतसां यकृत् मूलं प्लीहा च।(च.वि.५/७)

Raktavaha Srotas – In response to Grasp Sushruta, liver and spleen (as one unit) and the dhamanis – blood vessels, arteries (as one other unit) that carry blood are the 2 roots of channels carrying or transporting blood tissue. (Grasp Charaka additionally mentions liver and spleen, however not the rakta vahini dhamanis).

When these roots are injured / vitiated, the beneath talked about signs or situations are manifested –

–         blackish brown or greyish discoloration of physique elements
–         fever
–         burning sensation
–         anemia or pallor
–         bleeding from totally different orifices of physique
–         reddish discoloration of eyes

Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara

Grasp Charaka has listed the illnesses triggered because of contamination of blood that are the identical because the signs of vitiation of raktavaha srotas.

…वक्ष्यन्ते रक्त दोषजाः।
कुष्ठ वीसर्प पिडका रक्तपित्तं असृग्धरः॥
गुद मेढ्र आस्य पाकः च प्लीहा गुल्मो अथ विद्रधिः।
नीलिका कामला व्यङ्गः पिप्लवः तिलकालकः॥
ददृः चर्मदलं श्वित्रं पामा कोठ अस्र मण्डलम्।
रक्त प्रदोषात् जायन्ते…(च.सू.२८/११,१२)

–         irritation and suppuration of anal canal and anal orifice
–         irritation and suppuration of penis
–         ulceration of mouth and tongue, stomatitis,
–         enlargement of spleen
–         belly tumors
–         abscess
–         bluish eruptions
–         jaundice
–         contains pigmentation and melanin associated issues like freckles, mole, melano-derma, chloasma and so forth.
–         ringworm or tines
–         excoriation
–         leukoderma
–         scabies
–         pores and skin eruptions
–         reddish round pores and skin eruptions or patches

Among the many rakta doshaja vikara i.e. signs / illnesses manifested because of the contamination of Raktavaha Srotas, Pleeha i.e. splenomegaly is talked about by Grasp Charaka. As per the above dialogue, hepatomegaly too needs to be thought-about. Different illnesses having their origin from liver / hemopoetic system like Kamala – jaundice has been talked about. Pandutaa – anemia or pallor too has been talked about within the checklist of issues.

The illnesses / signs defined by Sushruta are these of injury to the roots of raktavaha srotas i.e. harm to liver, spleen or blood vessels or all of them. So, the signs are the outcomes / results of harm.

The illnesses / signs defined by Charaka are these of contamination of blood. These will in flip contaminate / vitiate the raktavaha srotas and its roots, together with liver and spleen. Right here, the contamination of liver and spleen is because of contamination of blood. Therefore enlargement of spleen (and liver) and jaundice have been talked about amongst the signs. Right here additionally the liver and spleen are affected, however because of and as an impact of vitiation of rakta – blood.

When many of the viddha lakshanas (Sushruta) or prodashaja vikaras (Charaka) are current it signifies that yakrit and pliha are invariably concerned. Whereas the opposite signs are triggered, the liver and spleen as organs additionally undergo from collateral injury.

Disturbance of features of hemopoiesis, of liver and spleen, enlargement of those organs, anemia and jaundice when current with different signs talked about above point out a gross disturbance of constructions of blood formation, storage and conveyance.

Within the course of, the liver and spleen are both victims or culprits. Blood is both contaminated or not shaped correctly when there’s illness of liver or spleen or each. However, contamination or vitiation of blood will hit exhausting on the liver and spleen, they being the basis sources of the blood, resulting in issues and dysfunctions of liver and spleen. The opposite signs point out the impression of this injury or vitiation of blood or organs linked to blood on the opposite elements of the physique. It’s because blood strikes to each a part of the physique.

These signs are additionally the symptoms of pathological manifestations of liver and spleen issues.

Causes of vitiation of Raktavaha srotas

विदाहीनि अन्न पानानि स्निग्ध उष्णानि द्रवाणि च।
रक्त वाहीनि दुष्यन्ति भजतां च आतप अनलौ॥(च.वि.५/१४)

The causes of vitiation of Raktavaha Srotas are the identical because the causes of contamination / vitiation of liver and spleen. They’re –

–         meals and drinks which trigger burning sensation after consuming them in extra (corrosive meals and drinks)
–         extreme consumption of oily meals
–         extreme consumption of sizzling meals
–         extreme consumption of liquid meals
–         extreme publicity to daylight
–         extreme publicity to fireplace

3. Different pathological situations

Yakrutodara or Yakrutdalyudara – It’s one among the many eight kinds of udara roga – enlargement of stomach. After explaining plihodara – enlargement of spleen, the masters have stated that Yakrutodara is an identical situation however happens on the appropriate aspect of the stomach, the seat of the liver. Yakrutodara thus explains ‘enlargement of the liver’ or hepatomegaly. Its causes, signs and coverings are just like these of Plihodara.

Signs of Yakrutodara embrace – feeling as if getting into right into a zone of darkness, extreme thirst, malaise, vomiting, fainting, prostration, cough, dyspnea, gentle fever, flatulence / constipation, lack of digestion capability, emaciation, distaste within the mouth, ache in small joints of the palms, distension of stomach and colic ache, redness or discoloration of stomach, and look of community of veins having blue, inexperienced or yellow colour on the stomach.

Associated Studying – Hepatomegaly

Rakta Vriddhi – Pathological improve of blood tissue will trigger many illnesses amongst which Pliha or Plihodara is one. Since together with Pliha, Yakrit can also be a root of Raktavaha Srotas, although unsaid, Yakrutodara can be thought-about amongst the signs of rakta vriddhi.

Medo Kshaya – Pliha Vriddhi i.e. enlargement of spleen is likely one of the signs of pathological depletion / lower of fats tissue.

 4. Pathological Mentions of Yakrit – liver

Aside from the liver being a offender or sufferer in illness processes, we now have the organ talked about in another contexts, for example or simily or complication.

Instance –

a.     Yakrit pliha antrani mukhad iva akshipan – Within the pathogenesis of Hikka – hiccup – it’s stated that when the particular person has intense episodes of hiccup he would really feel as if his liver, spleen and intestines are transferring up and popping out of the mouth.

b.    Yakrit Khanda Nibham – Within the rationalization of prognosis of atisara – diarrhea, the illness is alleged to be incurable if it resembles sure issues. One amongst them is the ‘free stools resembling items of liver’ in colour or having one thing within the excreta which resembles items of liver. (Ma.Ni.3/14-16, Su.Ut.40)

c.     Pliha – enlargement of spleen has been talked about among the many issues of Vataja Arshas – piles triggered because of predominant aggravation of vata. Liver enlargement too shall be thought-about right here.

d.    Pliha Shanki – Among the many signs of vataja grahani – intestinal / duodenal dysfunction triggered because of predominant aggravation of vata, pliha shanki has been talked about. This implies to inform that the particular person / affected person is apprehensive or doubts that he’s affected by both of vata gulma – belly tumors triggered because of predominant aggravation of vata, hrdroga – cardiac issues and pliha – spleen enlargement / splenomegaly (hepatomegaly – liver enlargement too shall be thought-about).