Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S

Yakrit is an Ayurveda phrase used for ‘Liver’ – the organ.

It’s an organ fashioned and derived from the rakta dhatu i.e. blood tissue. So, it’s wealthy in blood. Its story continues with blood as a result of yakrit together with pliha (spleen) are mentioned to be the roots of blood conveying channels within the physique i.e. raktavaha sroto mula. So, the qualitative and quantitative well being of blood tissue is dependent upon the wholesome standing of those two organs. Compared to yakrit, pliha has been given extra significance within the Ayurveda treatises.

Within the context of eight kinds of Udara Roga – belly ailments marked by enlargement of stomach, plihodara i.e. enlargement of spleen or splenomegaly has been detailed. Later the acharyas inform {that a} related enlargement on the correct aspect of the stomach is named as Yakrutodara – enlargement of liver or hepatomegaly. The causes and therapy of those circumstances are mentioned to be related.

Aside from being the roots of raktavaha srotas, yakrit and pliha are additionally –

–         Raktashaya – abodes or seats of blood tissue
–         Raktadhara kala – the membranes or layers answerable for the formation of blood tissue

The capabilities or physiology of liver and spleen will be attributed to the mixed integral functioning of raktadhara kala which is the ‘blood forming layers’ inside these organs and raktashaya the storage areas of blood embedded in these organs.

Likewise, the functioning and well being of each these organs and raktavaha srotas are additionally depending on one another. Additionally, the functioning of the liver and spleen are additionally depending on one another.

Yakrit ‘Kriya Shareera’: Physiology of Liver

Understanding the physiology of the liver by its definition / phrase derivation

Yakrit is that which does.

The title of the organ ‘Yakrut’ itself defines its motion and capabilities. Samyama – upkeep and Krit / Krut – doing many kinds of helpful capabilities like formation and distribution of blood and upkeep of well being are its important capabilities.

यं संयमं करोति, कृ तुक् च।शब्दस्तोमनिधि।

The phrase Yakrit is made up of two phrases –

–         Ya – means sustaining
–         Krit – means doing

That which does and maintains many capabilities is named Yakrit.

Relation to doshas

यकृत् रञक पित्तस्य स्थानम्।शा.पू.५/३९।

Liver and Spleen are associated to Ranjaka Pitta, a subtype of pitta positioned in these organs. The rasa i.e. the primary tissue fashioned from the digested meals essence (ahara rasa) transforms into rakta dhatu (blood or blood cells). That is in sync with the chronology of formation of tissues as defined in Ayurveda.

Mechanism of formation of rakta from rasa – The apya rasa i.e. water wealthy rasa tissue is meant to enter the liver and spleen. In these organs the rasa tissues come into contact with ranjaka pitta positioned therein. This ranjaka pitta colours the rasa tissue pink and converts it into blood tissue. That is made doable by the fiery element of ranjaka pitta – the ranjaka agni. Due to this fact, the blood and its coloration are fashioned by Rajnaka Pitta positioned within the liver and spleen.

Relation to Amashaya

In response to Grasp Vagbhata, Ranjaka Pitta is positioned within the amashaya i.e. abdomen. Clubbing the above mentioned reference with this we will conclude that Ranjaka pitta has 2 parts, one a part of it’s positioned within the liver and spleen and the opposite half within the abdomen. The perform of each these parts is ‘rasa ranjana’ i.e. to impart coloration (pink coloration) to the rasa. This additionally reveals that the well being of abdomen and small gut, together with liver and spleen and the stability of ranjaka pitta parts therein could be very a lot important for the formation and distribution of blood. Blood is the ‘life element’ and helps in sustenance of life. Thus, Ranjaka Pitta types a typical connection between these 3 organs. This additionally signifies that pachaka pitta, samana vata and kledaka kapha positioned within the amashaya are additionally not directly linked with liver and spleen.

We are able to additionally see that the issues of liver and spleen can produce a wide selection of issues associated to blood and hematopoiesis which in flip causes imbalance within the high quality and amount of blood. It will have an effect on the general well being of people since most actions of the physique are depending on the amount of blood provide they get and the standard and well being of blood tissue. Blood additionally carries together with it, the important parts of life – diet and oxygen – to each cell and nook of the physique.

Relation to Dhatus

Rasa tissue comes into the liver and spleen and obtains pink coloration and type of blood. Due to this fact, rasa and rakta dhatus are associated to the liver and spleen. The formation and maturation of blood from rasa tissue is beneath the management of those organs.

Relation to Mala

Within the illness Kamala – jaundice, primarily of the obstructive sort, the colour of the feces modifications to ‘tila pishta nibha’ i.e. coloration of paste of sesame seeds i.e. there may be irregular change in coloration of stools. Within the therapy of Kamala, it’s mentioned that step one can be to maintain giving medicines till the ‘pitta ranjana’ takes place i.e. till the pitta as soon as once more imparts the conventional coloration of stools to the stools. The colour has modified as a result of the pitta – ranjaka pitta – was not launched into the intestine from the liver, as a result of obstruction. As soon as the pitta is launched into the intestine, it as soon as once more imparts coloration to the feces. It is a reference which explains the ‘stool staining’ perform of pitta launched from the liver. Even in fashionable drugs we examine that the colour of the feces / stools is as a result of stercobilinogen, a element of bilirubin (a part of bile) secreted by the liver.

Relation to Agni

Yakrit is the seat of Ranjaka Pitta. Grasp Sushruta has used the time period Agni for all subtypes of pitta as an alternative of pitta. So, Ranjaka Pitta is principally Ranjaka Agni. Additionally, the hearth is represented within the physique within the type of pitta. Agni is principally positioned within the pitta. So, all capabilities of agni will be attributed to these of pitta additionally, together with bringing about transformation within the types of substances. This property of Ranjaka Pitta helps in transformation of apya rasa to agneya rakta, within the strategy of formation of blood from rasa tissue i.e. lymph.

Different capabilities of Yakrit and its parts

Raktadhara Kala – These are the membranes or layers inside the pulp of the yakrit – the liver that are answerable for the formation of blood. These layers are additionally positioned within the pliha – the spleen. These are the layers which rework the rasa dhatu into rakta dhatu. Clearly these kalas have lively proportions of rakta dhatvagni – the tissue hearth of blood tissue and ranjaka pitta, each of that are required for the transformation of rasa into rakta.

Raktashaya – Liver and spleen are thought of because the abode of rakta – the blood. The blood fashioned by the raktadhara kala is held and saved within the depots of those organs till it’s provided to the whole physique.

Raktavaha Srotas – The rakta which has been fashioned by the motion of raktadhara kala, ranjaka pitta and rakta dhatvagni on rasa dhatu and saved within the raktashaya, are distributed to the whole physique by means of raktavaha srotas – the channels and ducts which convey the fashioned and mature blood.