Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S

Yakrit, an organ described in Ayurveda anatomically correlates to ‘the liver’ defined in trendy drugs.

Anatomy of Yakrit: Liver

Yakrit: phrase derivation and that means

यं संयमं करोति, कृ तुक् च।शब्दस्तोमनिधि।

Yakrit is that which does

–         YA – Yam samyama – maintains (many features?) and
–         KRIT / KRUT – Kru tuk – does (many actions?)

The organ which maintains (ya) and does (krit / krut) known as yakrit / yakrut.

Anatomical Location of Yakrit

(हृदयस्य) दक्षिणतो यकृत् क्लोम च।सु.शा.४/३०।
कुक्षौ दक्षिण्न भागस्थे मांस पिण्डम्।
तद्वर्धते रोगे च।शब्दस्तोमनिधि।
यकृत् कालखण्डं दक्षिणपार्श्वस्थम्।डल्हण, सु.शा.४/२५।

We are able to discover oblique references of the anatomical location of the liver.
Whereas explaining the anatomy of hrdaya – coronary heart, it’s stated that the liver is situated in the direction of the best of the guts (contemplating that coronary heart is usually a proper sided organ) and inferior to it. That is precisely the anatomical place of the liver as defined in trendy anatomy. It’s situated in the best hypochodrium area i.e. proper higher quadrant of the stomach.

Yakrit is a mamsa pinda – a mass of flesh, situated in the best aspect of the stomach. When it will increase in dimension (pathological), it is going to trigger many ailments. Right here we have to see that the liver will not be a muscular mass, however it resembles one. The feel of yakrit can also be muscular.

Synonyms of Yakrit

–         Kala Khanda
–         Mamsa Khanda
–         Jyothi Sthana
–         Agni Sthana

Yakrit relationship with Pliha

Pliha, one other organ defined in Ayurveda correlates with ‘the spleen’ defined in trendy anatomy. We are able to see that Ayurveda has typically defined the organs yakrit and pliha collectively. Although they’ve defined them as particular person organs, Ayurveda masters might need noticed a detailed relationship, primarily by way of their features between these organs. Subsequently, they’re defined collectively.

Within the context of 8 kinds of Udara Roga i.e. belly enlargements (ailments) / problems we will see that Ayurveda treatises have defined Plihodara i.e. enlargement of stomach as a result of enlargement of spleen – correlates to splenomegaly. However Yakrutodara i.e. hepatomegaly has not been defined individually. Ayurveda masters have stated that Yakrutodara is identical as Plihodara however seems on the opposite aspect (whereas spleen enlarges on the left aspect of the stomach, liver enlarges on the other aspect i.e. proper aspect).

The apya rasa i.e. rasa tissue having the character of water, on coming into yakrit and pliha, would get pink coloured by the motion of ranjaka pitta and turns into rakta i.e. blood tissue. Right here we will see that physiologically each the liver and spleen are concerned within the formation of blood tissue and so are interrelated organs.

Embryological formation

Within the fetus / embryo – the liver and spleen, each are shaped from shonita – blood. That is additionally a typical connection between these two organs, having the identical origin.

Yakrit is a matruja avayava – being a mushy organ it’s stated to be derived predominantly from mom. It is without doubt one of the maternal elements – matruja bhava, to manifest within the youngster.

Raktavaha Srotas

रक्तवहे द्वे तयोर्मूलं यकृत् प्लीहानौ रक्तवाहिन्यश्च धमन्यः।
तत्र विद्धस्य श्यावाङ्गता ज्वरो दाहः पाण्डुता शोणितागमनं रक्त नेत्रता च।सु.शा.९।
शोणितवहानां स्रोतसां यकृत् मूलं प्लीहा च।च.वि.५।

Liver, spleen and the arteries carrying blood are the roots of raktavaha srotas – the blood carrying channels within the physique. This additionally means to inform that each these organs are associated to fabricate and maturation of blood and in addition to move mature blood within the channels carrying the blood to completely different elements of the physique.

The harm to those srotas and its roots trigger discoloration of the physique, fever, burning sensation, bleeding and redness of the eyes.

Associated Studying – Raktavaha Srotas


शोणितस्य स्थानं यकृत् प्लीहानौ।सु.सू.२१।
जीव रक्ताशय इति – जीवतुल्यं रक्तम्, तस्य आशयस्थानम्, तच्च प्लीहा इति प्रसिद्धं, हृदयस्य वामाश्रितं भवति।

Rakta = blood, Ashaya = seat,

Yakrit – liver and Pliha – spleen are stated to be the seats of rakta – blood.

Raktadhara Kala

द्वितीया रक्तधरा नामा, मांसस्याभ्यन्तरतः तस्यां शोणितं विशेषतश्च सिरासु कृत् प्लीहनोश्च भवति।
वृक्षाद्यथाभिप्रहारात् क्षीरिणः क्षीरमावहेत्।
मांसादेवं क्षतात् क्षिप्रं शोणितं संप्रसिच्यते॥सु.शा.४॥

Kala means membranes or layers. The second kala known as raktadhara kala – the membranes holding or shielding the blood tissue. It’s embedded within the muscle tissue. This kala can also be current contained in the siras (blood vessels), yakrit (liver) and pliha (spleen).

A simily explaining this kala says ‘Once we reduce a department of a latex yielding plant, the milk or latex flows out of it. Equally, after we reduce the mamsa i.e. muscle tissue, we will discover the plasma and blood oozing out of it. This can be a proof of the raktadhara kala being situated deep contained in the pulp of the muscle tissue.

Functionally, the epithelial layers of the blood vessels, the cells of liver and spleen and all the haemopoietic system shall be thought-about as raktadhara kala.

There are two peshis associated to yakrit and two peshis associated to pliha. Subsequently, there are 4 muscle groups associated to the liver and spleen. We are able to see that there are literally no muscle groups in and across the liver and spleen. Most likely Ayurveda was wanting in the direction of diaphragm or thick layers of peritoneum in relation to those organs because the peshis associated to those two organs.

Among the many dhamanis, two are talked about as raktavahini dhamanis i.e. the dhamanis carrying blood tissue. Although their location has not been specified it may be inferred that they’re rooted within the yakrit and pliha.

Although the connection of yakrut and siras has not been straight talked about, we will join the dots from the references we get within the treatises. Sira is the upadhatu – sub-tissue of rakta dhatu. Yakrut and Pliha are the roots of raktavaha srotas. So, rakta, sira, raktavaha srotas and yakrut are interconnected structurally and functionally. So, all siras are related to the yakrit. We are able to additionally see that the liver has its personal circulatory equipment – portal circulation and the pulp of the liver is enriched with blood vessels. The adhogami siras i.e. the veins transferring within the downward course might be assumed to be associated to yakrit, identical to they’d with the opposite organs of the stomach and decrease limbs.

Yakrit, as an organ, has not been included in any class of marmas. The beneath talked about Marmas are situated in and round yakrit –

–         Nabhi Marma – within the navel area
–         Parshva Sandhi Marma – decrease portion of hip bone
–         Hridaya Marma – within the chest, the guts and the vessels related to it
–         Stanamula – beneath the best breast (the opposite is situated beneath the left breast area)
–         Stanarohita – on the best aspect of the chest, close to the breast (the opposite is situated on the left aspect of the chest, close to the left breast)
–         Basti / Vasti – within the area of urinary bladder, represents urinary bladder – although it’s far off organ in relation to the liver, it shall be thought-about on this context due to vasti being udaragata marma i.e. marma situated within the stomach, the liver too being an belly organ.
–         Guda – rectum or anus and rectum, the decrease portion of colon – shall be thought-about in accordance with the identical logic defined above (vasti).

These are all of the buildings related to one another by prana power. If they’re broken, they might trigger useful impairment, delayed demise or rapid demise. This may occasionally additionally impression the liver, it being an organ within the proximity of those marmas.

Nabhi Marma is carefully related to the Yakrit compared to the opposite marmas talked about above. As talked about above, Yakrit is shaped by shonita – blood, it kinds the foundation of raktavaha srotas, it’s a raktashaya and it has embedded in it the raktadhara kala. Nabhi is a sira marma – predominant in veins. Siras are additionally associated to the blood tissue. In fetal circulation the fetus will get its diet via the nabhi of the kid related to the mom. This rakta passes via the yakrit of the kid.

Anatomical Neighbors of Yakrit

The reference accessible for the organs situated within the neighborhood of the Hridaya i.e. coronary heart shall be thought-about because the neighboring organs of yakrit as effectively.

In the direction of the left of Hridaya are situated pliha and phupphusa. In the direction of its proper are situated yakrit and kloma.

Placing this from the angle of anatomical neighbors of yakrit, we will inform –

–         Above the yakrit, Hridaya – the guts is situated within the chest cavity, being separated by diaphragm
–         In the direction of the left (left higher quadrant of stomach, within the rapid neighborhood of yakrit is situated the pliha – the spleen
–         In the direction of the left of yakrit and above the extent of pliha is situated the phuphusa – the lung (left lung)
–         Very close to to it, on the best aspect itself (proper higher quadrant of stomach) is situated the kloma. Now kloma is a debatable organ, the detailed description of which isn’t accessible in Ayurveda texts. It has been in comparison with many organs within the physique. However taking this anatomical reference, the closest organ to the liver, in or close to the best higher quadrant the place it’s situated, might be both gallbladder (beneath the liver) or proper lung (above the liver, within the chest cavity).

Different factors to contemplate

Dosha Relation – Yakrit is said to Ranjaka Pitta, which helps in conversion of rasa to rakta.

Dhatu Relation – Since Yakrit is concerned within the formation of Rakta Dhatu – blood tissue, blood, its formation and distribution is straight underneath the management of Yakrit (and Pleeha).

Mala Relation – Ranjaka Pitta offers the stools (feces) its regular coloration.

Agni Relation – Yakrit is the seat of Ranjaka Agni.

Associated Studying – ‘Yakrit Kriya Shareera – Physiology of Liver – Ayurveda Perspective’